A Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software allows you to manage sales leads, convert them into customers and track sales & aftersales performance & customer behavior. To set up a CRM for your startup, you first need to determine the following about your business:
- Your customer journey from lead to active customer
- How you want to differentiate, if at all, among potential customers within your sales process
- The software you will use for your CRM
Mapping the Customer Journey
5 key characteristics of a good CRM system.
- Easy integration
Your CRM of choice should not require you to put in a lot of work upfront. A good CRM is a CRM which lets you quickly and easily import data from existing databases. Instead of wasting time copying info from various sources by hand, you should be able to get straight to business and put you CRM to good use right off the bat.
- Ease of use
Even the best CRM system is useless if your employees don’t know how to use it. When deciding between CRM solutions make sure that the one you pick is easy to use, has an intuitive interface, ample documentation and good user support. The time spent training your employees to use your CRM should be as short as possible – after all, the whole point of having a CRM is increasing efficiency, rather than wasting time.
If you’re thinking about getting a CRM, you are also obviously planning to grow your business. This is why you should make sure that whichever CRM you choose is easily adaptable to your future needs. A good CRM doesn’t just fit your company’s current needs, but also has the potential to grow with you: it should include multiple modules, features and possibilities for integration.
- Positive impact on customer satisfaction
At the heart of every CRM, as the name obviously suggests, is maintaining positive customer relationships. This is why a good CRM is more than just a complicated address book – it should let you and your employess see a comprehensive customer profile. A CRM should also enable you to easily answer customer questions and offer them relevant services. This way a CRM not only makes you appear more professional, but also positively affects your revenue.
- Easy reporting & overviews
Watching your business grow is not just fun, but also a key part of planning for the future. A good CRM should let you analyze customer & employee activites and use the information for the benefit of your company. This is why the CRM you choose should have reporting and tracking features.
- Project manager: the leader during your CRM planning
- Application analyst: responsible for data migration and cleansing
- Application developer: in charge of system customization
- QA test engineer heads up testing efforts
- Representatives from all key user groups:
- Sales team
- Sales managers
- Marketing team
- Marketing managers
- Project managers
- Customer service representatives
Going beyond this, it’s important to consider what each member’s strategic role in your CRM implementation project will be. Broadly speaking, you need advocates, specialists, and workhorses to make your implementation team a successful one.
The advocates are normally senior in the organization and can articulate why the change is happening, there is almost always resistance, so these advocates should be able to sell the idea to the workforce.
If you don’t win over your key user groups, things can turn ugly. I’ve seen situations where teams have sabotaged a CRM implementation process by deliberately being obstructive. Asking lots of questions, raising tickets, talking about what the system can’t do and not using the system properly. If the process goes down this path, it can be fatal. Advocates are therefore essential as the first step in convincing people in the organization that the new CRM will make their lives better.
The CRM planning process is normally carried out by specialists in the team. These people have a good understanding of the CRM being implemented and work at the start to make sure that the system is set up correctly and that the data migrates. If there is no in-house specialist, consider hiring one for the project. The vendor can be helpful, but ideally you want someone inside your organization for the roll-out period.
Finally, workhorses are necessary, and they come in a few different guises. There are workhorses who make sure the guidance of the specialist is followed (testing, migration) and there are workhorses who line manage new users post Implementation to make sure they are using the system effectively.
Your implementation team is there to help your business realize the goals it set when you first decided to select a CRM. According to a recent CRM report, over 60% of businesses implement a CRM to increase efficiency and gain greater functionality in their business; it’s part of your implementation team’s job to ensure you achieve this goal. Pick people who are going to help you make that happen.
Assess the strengths and weaknesses of your CRM implementation team
Going on from the first point you need to work out which advocates, specialists and workhorses you have in-house to make the change a reality.
Write out exactly what you need, the gaps you have in expertise and how you plan to fill those gaps. Companies are often deficient at all three levels, but the most overlooked team member is the advocate – don’t underestimate the buy-in you need from team members. You could look at hiring a CRM implementation consultant if you’re really short – but their expertise and experience doesn’t come very cheap.
When assessing the team also consider the capabilities of the current users to move to a new system, are they tech savvy? Are they adaptable? Is the current system firmly embedded in company culture?
Plan how you’ll manage the change bought about by CRM implementation
This involves breaking down the project into manageable stages and creating key milestones, including:
- User training and engagement
- Data migration
You should also look at how you will track the project. I have seen Google Docs used effectively and I’ve also seen teams do this on large sheets of flip board paper. Whatever the model is be consistent and have regular check-ins.
Communicate the change to stakeholders
This is an essential step. Ultimately, you should aim to
- Give staff clarity on why you are implementing a new CRM
- Give staff an opportunity to provide thoughts and feedback, and
- Give staff time to adjust to the change
Clarity should be achievable (although often this is delivered abysmally). You should aim to make sure that every member of staff has a clear view of what is happening, why it is happening and how it affect will their work life.
The opportunity to provide feedback is more difficult. You want to make people feel heard, but if you already have a set idea, then the illusion of having input can be more detrimental than helpful. A great tactic I’ve seen is offering staff an opportunity to join a steering committee and then asking the person in that committee to collate the points of the staff team. This filter often stops the flood of comments, and one person is easier to work with that a whole staff body.
Making sure that the roll out happens over a sensible period is important. It makes staff feel respected if they understand the process longer in advance, gives them a chance to process what is happening and ask questions. If the CRM implementation process is rolled out too soon it can cause panic.
Project managers often don’t consider the full extent of implementation costs. In many cases, once the full cost is considered it brings into focus the question, “is it cost effective to roll this out?”
To avoid nasty surprises, use the following steps to draw up a budget and try and
- Consultancy fees
- Other vendor implementation services (e.g project management, data migration, customization)
- Staff overtime
- Travel (e.g. to vendor training center)
- Phone costs
- Reduced productivity
- Data backup and storage
For example, most organizations know that training is important so deliver some generic staff training days to get the key points across. It is much more effective to train the line managers of the most substantial users in more depth so they can pass on the knowledge as the CRM rolls out to their teams. Another tactic that works well is giving line managers training on how to get ideas across to different types of learners and then working out how each user learns best.
CRM data migration is most effective when you have a clear plan.
A migration brief should cover what you need to migrate and how it will be used in the new CRM. Once you have the high-level brief you can begin to work out how to do this. Downloading and uploading using Excel or csv are still the most popular tactics but often fall short of getting to the final result. Manipulating the data once it has been uploaded can be challenging, as often the new CRM is using the data in a very different way. Most CRMs will have apps to provide support – but the level of customization may mean the process is manual.
Before migrating, it is a good idea to cleanse your data of any out-of-date information (defunct contact addresses, old employee information etc.). Think of it as a sort of ‘spring cleaning’ exercise – you want to declutter and start afresh.
CRM user training
This can be delivered in different ways. The most successful training tends to be a mix of face-to-face, online, practice and having managers who can support their team. In my experience getting teams out of the office for a day is very important. Not only does it give trainees the mental space it sends out the right message – that the training is important!
System testing is best left to the IT staff on your implementation team as they will know what they’re doing. Consult with them and schedule in time pre go-live for:
- System testing
- Functional testing
- Stress testing
- Performance testing
- Usability testing
- Acceptance testing
- Integration testing
- Plan and initiate your CRM go-live
Go-live periods are a product of great training and migration. If you get the set up right this will ease the process but there are some tactics which can speed up this phase.
Firstly, plan. You’ll need to plan the following to make sure your go-live goes as smoothly as possible
- Staff scheduling including required overtime or temporary staff
- Identifying metrics for project evaluation
- Creating a communication strategy for system downtime
- Network speed and reliability checks
- Data backup processes
- Post go-live testing
Many companies try to go-live in one day. To de-risk this it is worth phasing the process over a number of stages with the workforce gradually coming on-line. This gives you the opportunity to spot bugs and look at how a small subset of employees are responding. A second tactic is having an easy to use ticketing system where users can log issues and errors – you should obsess over these early points and look for issues that are causing real problems – then fix them.
Monitoring system success post go-live
Have in place a review of the likely problems and strategies for working on each one. Here are
|Users don’t understand the new system||Additional training by superusers|
|Users aren’t using the system and reverting to the old system||Closure of old system, retraining, interviews to understand reluctance|
|CRM won’t integrate with ecommerce platform||Scheduled downtime to fix integration problems|
An example error/solution matrix for issues arising during CRM implementation
You need to quickly understand if it is a competency or willingness issue and then put a plan in place. Prepare for both.
- Evaluate the success of your CRM implementation
You need to build a dashboard which pulls out the key data, have targets and track relentlessly against this data. Be very thorough about the key metrics and deciding what success looks like. Below are a couple of key metrics which are often used:
- System activity: reviews the number of discrete actions completed by a user on the system. This is useful as a high-level check to see that users are logging in and actually using the system. It is surprising how often the users will either not update the system properly or even worse still use the old CRM.
- Record updates: If the CRM requires records to be updated, like clients or people on the system (instead of just new activity), this is a telling check to see if users are engaging with the CRM because many users neglect this part of managing their data. If they’re doing this, it shows some level of engagement.
- Quality of inputs: If inputs are happening an audit to assess the quality of these inputs is the next step. Consider the inputs which have the largest possible variable in quality. A good example of this on a sales CRM is a reason for losing a job, reps often skip over this so if they are adding good data this is a good sign.
- Business metrics: looking at broader business metrics is always difficult because it is hard to attribute them to one variable i.e. Your shiny new CRM. If a sales team has increased revenue by 40% since the new CRM was implemented it is a good sign, obviously the causation needs to be assessed but these performance metrics should prompt deeper assessment. It can be even better if you can tie the performance to the CRM e.g. revenue has increased by 40% but we can also see that call to appointment conversion is up 30%, e-mail reply rates are up 22% and sales meetings booked is up 30%. Then we can be more confident the new CRM is adding value.
- Adoption: Create a user-adoption plan for your CRM implementation. Start by targeting the 80 percent of users. Then, have a plan for the 20 percent that ultimately pushes back on change. Listen to users and gather feedback on their ideas. Make sure your plan incorporates C-level leadership and board-level commitment. Measure and reinforce standards early and often. CRM strategy initiatives that fail to get support from early adopters and top performers, especially in sales, risk becoming another CRM failure statistic.
- Benchmark: Establish criteria for successful implementation, create formulas, and measure frequently. Remember, success factors include more than financial benchmarks: you should also measure the intangible benefits of technological, user-based business processes and cultural standards, in addition to revenue or customer-retention results.
- Budget: Work with your CRM provider, partner consultants, and your internal implementation team to set a realistic budget. Discuss expectations for the individual components of system implementation and consider a phased approach to additional features. Anticipate the future costs of training and onboarding beyond the original estimate.
- Capture: Gather data before implementing new CRM processes and technology. If this data is not available internally, capture data from external sources. The data capture does not need to be excessive and should relate to your overall strategy. Which type of information is most useful for your customer relationship strategy? Defining this data before implementation is mandatory.
- Customize: Customization ensures that you meet unique customer needs after implementation. Customized products and services meet unique customer needs as well as the value proposition behind them. Communication should also meet those needs. Customize new CRM processes and technology to support the level of customer communication and service. When engaging in this customization, be sure to consider customer needs.
- Differentiation: Decide which customers receive which product or service based on their unique needs and your value proposition. Your strategy for identifying and serving your target customers impacts your CRM implementation and the level of customer service you provide. Also, differentiate between the various kinds of data that drive these decisions. How will you organize the CRM data from different customer segments and optimize the business processes they impact?
- Evolution: The CRM technology you implement doesn’t need to be in final form after the initial execution. First, decide which features are necessary and the level of service and training you require from your vendor partners. Which departments will leverage the technology first? After this test phase, ask: does it make sense to add additional teams and customizations? Over time, phase in additional technology and services based on the evolution of your customer relationship strategy.
- Framework: Your culture and CRM strategy determine the structure of your CRM implementation. Adjust the implementation plans to accommodate your customer relationship framework.
- Identification: Collect data and design a clear understanding of which customers you target. Develop a simple database to gather information and profile customers before implementing CRM technology with a superior database. Determine how your CRM implementation impacts new customers versus existing customers. In addition to identifying the customers you serve, identify their unique needs, and consider creative ways in which CRM processes and technology empower your ability to meet these requirements.
- Integration: Understand which existing applications and systems need to integrate with new CRM processes and technology. Modern CRM software needs to receive and push data from application to application. Do you have the necessary internal resources to integrate technology, or do you need to hire outside consultants or rely on the CRM vendor for this function? Remember to consider a phased approach that fits the evolution of your overall CRM strategy.
- Launch: Get excited about your CRM implementation. Use internal marketing and communication techniques to frame the message and develop a positive approach to change. Announce a start date for new processes and technology and celebrate that day. Set the tone for the CRM implementation by demonstrating an internal culture that positively impacts the external customer relationships.
- Map: Which business processes need to be fixed or changed? Which ones should remain intact and be enforced by new CRM processes and technology? Consider designing internal documentation, such as a flowchart that demonstrates how to manage new and existing processes. Mapping out your business process before implementing new technology reinforces the importance of customer relationships during the distraction of the implementation stage. Design and follow an implementation timeline that accurately portrays your capabilities and aligns with existing business processes.
- Outcomes: What do you need to measure to achieve your overall customer relationship strategy? Which business metrics lead to the success of your organization? How will you progress and adjust based on the outcomes of your CRM implementations? Anticipate and track CRM strategy goals, and ensure that the proper features, reports, and dashboards are in place to do so.
Prepare: Readiness extends beyond the policy and planning phases discussed earlier in this article. Do you have the appropriate hardware in place to leverage new technology? Is your physical workspace set up to succeed after implementation is